The use of clonal rootstocks for apples began in the mid-1900s. Selections from the East Malling Research Station, Kent, England, were introduced to commercial fruit production as a means to control tree vigor, promote early fruiting and improve tree efficiency. The widespread acceptance of this technology led the way for rootstock breeding in the United States, Poland and the former Soviet Union. The M and EMLA rootstocks from East Malling, the Bud rootstocks from the former Soviet Union and more recently, the G rootstocks from Geneva, New York, have become the most commonly used rootstocks for apple production in the United States and throughout the world.
The most dwarfing rootstock we currently offer, Bud 9 produces a tree typically smaller than M-9, though some northern/colder districts have observed vigor much closer to M-9. Bud 9 is very winter hardy, resistant to collar rot and somewhat less susceptible to fire blight than M–9. Tree support is recommended when using this rootstock.
GENEVA® 11 (G-11)
Developed from a cross of Malling 26 and Robusta 5, G-11 produces a tree similar in size to M-9 (337). Shows higher yield efficiency than EMLA 26 and similar to M-9. It has moderately high resistance to fire blight, has good resistance to Phytophthora root rot, but is not resistant to woolly apple aphids.
GENEVA® 16 (G-16)
Geneva® 16 produces a tree similar in size to trees on M–9 clones. Its desirable characteristics include high-yield efficiency and resistance to burrknots and root suckers. Geneva® 16 shows strong resistance to fire blight and some tolerance to apple replant disease. Due to virus sensitivity, G-16 is available only with certain scion combinations.
BUD-10® (MICH 96 Cltv.) PP#21,223
A dwarfing and cold-hardy rootstock, Bud-10® is our most recent offering from the Budagovsky series. Exhibits good fire blight resistance with vigor similar to a strong M-9 clone, like Nic29. The rootstock induces wide scaffold branching, and NC-140 plantings indicate excellent yield efficiency. Tree support recommended.
GENEVA® 935 (G-935)
Also developed as part of the Geneva program, G-935 is closer to EMLA 26 in vigor. This root expresses the same high resistance to fire blight and replant disease, but is not considered resistant to woolly apple aphids. It is hardy with little incidence of rootsuckering. Due to virus sensitivity, G-935 is available only with certain scion combinations.
BUD 9/EMLA 111
The interstem Bud 9/EMLA 111 produces intermediate trees similar to EMLA 26. Advantages include a well-anchored, collar rot-resistant EMLA 111 tree, with the dwarfing and precocity of the Bud 9 interstem. Greater tolerance to fire blight than M-9/EMLA 111 interstem.
GENEVA® 969 (G-969)
Developed by Cornell University in Geneva, NY, G-969 grows a tree somewhere between EMLA 26 and EMLA 7 in vigor, but more precocious. It is a hardy stock exhibiting high resistance to fire blight and replant disease. It is also resistant to woolly apple ahpid. The tree has been described as freestanding, but trellis/support is recommended when planted in a high density system.
The most widely planted freestanding semi-dwarf rootstock. EMLA 7 trees exhibit an open spreading-type growth similar to peach trees in size. The trees size fruit well in a dry season. Trees are relatively well anchored, but support is recommended on weak sites. EMLA 7 has a tendency to rootsucker.
GENEVA® 210 (G-210)
G-210 is a semi-dwarf rootstock introduced by the rootstock program in Geneva, NY. It is very resistant to fire blight, replant disease, and woolly apple aphid damage. Vigor is similar to that of EMLA 7, but is more productive and precocious. Very good yield efficiency has been reported, however it does have the tendency to root sucker.
Somewhat larger than EMLA 7, the EMLA 106 is better anchored. Resistant to woolly aphids, it seldom rootsuckers and performs best on dry sites. It is extremely susceptible to collar rot and should not be planted in wet sites or heavy clay soils.
GENEVA® 890 (G-890)
G-890 is a vigorous, semi-dwarf rootstock with deep growing roots. It grows a tree similar in size to EMLA 106, but exhibits better yield efficiency. G-890 is a cold hardy root, resistant to fire blight and crown rot. Some suckering has been reported.
A vigorous semi-dwarf, EMLA 111 produces a tree somewhat larger than EMLA 106. Trees are well anchored, resistant to collar rot and woolly aphids. A good selection for heavy, poorly drained soils.