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The use of clonal rootstocks for apples
began in the mid 1900's. Selections from the East Malling Research
Station, Kent, England were introduced to commercial fruit production
as a means to control tree vigor, promote early fruiting, and
improve tree efficiency. The widespread acceptance of this technology
led the way for rootstock breeding in the United States, Poland,
and the former Soviet Union. The M and EMLA rootstocks from East
Malling, the Bud rootstocks from the former Soviet Union, and
more recently, the G rootstocks from Geneva, New York have become
the most commonly used rootstocks for apple production in the
United States and throughout the world.
A dwarfing rootstock, ideal for high density plantings. M9-337
is a virus certified clone of the original Malling 9 and has been
used successfully throughout the world. Trees on M9-337 are very
precocious and tolerant to a wide range of soil and climate conditions.
Due to the poor anchorage of this rootstock, tree support is essential
in establishing trees.
A selection of Malling 9 developed in Belgium. M9-Nic29 is recommended
for use with cultivars that are less vigorous such as Empire or
Honeycrisp. M9-Nic29 has slightly more vigor than other clones
of Malling 9 yet is similar in other horticultural characteristics.
A dwarfing rootstock producing a tree similar in size to M-9. Bud
9 is very winter hardy, resistant to collar rot, and somewhat less
susceptible to fire blight than M-9. Tree support is recommended
when using this rootstock.
GENEVA 16 (G.16)
A dwarfing rootstock developed from a 1981 cross of Ottawa 3
and Malus Floribunda. Geneva 16 produces a tree similar in size
to trees on M-9 clones. Its desirable characteristics include
high yield efficiency, resistance to burrknots and root suckers.
Geneva 16 shows strong resistance to fire blight and some tolerance
to apple replant disease.
Ideal for high density plantings, EMLA 26 produces a dwarf tree
between M-9 and EMLA 7. Free standing on strong soils, EMLA 26
usually requires staking on less fertile sites. EMLA 26 does not
tolerate wet feet and is susceptible to fire blight and woolly
M-9 / EMLA 111 INTERSTEM
The interstem M-9 / EMLA 111 produces intermediate
trees similar to EMLA 26. Advantages include a well anchored,
collar rot resistant EMLA 111 tree, with the dwarfing and precocity
of the M-9 interstem.
The most widely-planted free-standing semi-dwarf rootstock to date.
EMLA 7 trees exhibit an open spreading-type growth similar to peach
trees in size. The trees are well anchored, hardy, and size fruit
well in a dry season. EMLA 7 has a tendency to rootsucker when
not planted deep.
Somewhat larger than EMLA 7, the EMLA 106 is better anchored. Resistant to woolly
aphids, it seldom rootsuckers, and performs best on dry sites. It is extremely
susceptible to collar rot and should not be planted in wet sites or heavy clay
A vigorous semi-dwarf, EMLA 111 produces a tree somewhat larger than EMLA 106.
Trees are well anchored, resistant to collar rot and woolly aphids. A good selection
for heavy, poorly-drained soils.