Adams County Nursery Fruit Trees
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Adams County Nursery Growing With You
26 Nursery Road
P.O. Box 108
Aspers, PA 17304

(717) 677-8105

(717) 677-4124

Office Hours:
(year round)
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(November, March & April)
Sat : 7:00 - 12:00

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Apple Rootstocks

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The use of clonal rootstocks for apples began in the mid 1900's. Selections from the East Malling Research Station, Kent, England were introduced to commercial fruit production as a means to control tree vigor, promote early fruiting, and improve tree efficiency. The widespread acceptance of this technology led the way for rootstock breeding in the United States, Poland, and the former Soviet Union. The M and EMLA rootstocks from East Malling, the Bud rootstocks from the former Soviet Union, and more recently, the G rootstocks from Geneva, New York have become the most commonly used rootstocks for apple production in the United States and throughout the world.

M-9 (337)

A dwarfing rootstock, ideal for high density plantings. M9-337 is a virus certified clone of the original Malling 9 and has been used successfully throughout the world. Trees on M9-337 are very precocious and tolerant to a wide range of soil and climate conditions. Due to the poor anchorage of this rootstock, tree support is essential in establishing trees.

M9-NIC 29

A selection of Malling 9 developed in Belgium. M9-Nic29 is recommended for use with cultivars that are less vigorous such as Empire or Honeycrisp. M9-Nic29 has slightly more vigor than other clones of Malling 9 yet is similar in other horticultural characteristics.


A dwarfing rootstock producing a tree similar in size to M-9. Bud 9 is very winter hardy, resistant to collar rot, and somewhat less susceptible to fire blight than M-9. Tree support is recommended when using this rootstock.

GENEVA 16 (G.16)

A dwarfing rootstock developed from a 1981 cross of Ottawa 3 and Malus Floribunda. Geneva 16 produces a tree similar in size to trees on M-9 clones. Its desirable characteristics include high yield efficiency, resistance to burrknots and root suckers. Geneva 16 shows strong resistance to fire blight and some tolerance to apple replant disease.


Ideal for high density plantings, EMLA 26 produces a dwarf tree between M-9 and EMLA 7. Free standing on strong soils, EMLA 26 usually requires staking on less fertile sites. EMLA 26 does not tolerate wet feet and is susceptible to fire blight and woolly aphids.


The interstem M-9 / EMLA 111 produces intermediate trees similar to EMLA 26. Advantages include a well anchored, collar rot resistant EMLA 111 tree, with the dwarfing and precocity of the M-9 interstem.


The most widely-planted free-standing semi-dwarf rootstock to date. EMLA 7 trees exhibit an open spreading-type growth similar to peach trees in size. The trees are well anchored, hardy, and size fruit well in a dry season. EMLA 7 has a tendency to rootsucker when not planted deep.

EMLA 106

Somewhat larger than EMLA 7, the EMLA 106 is better anchored. Resistant to woolly aphids, it seldom rootsuckers, and performs best on dry sites. It is extremely susceptible to collar rot and should not be planted in wet sites or heavy clay soils.

EMLA 111

A vigorous semi-dwarf, EMLA 111 produces a tree somewhat larger than EMLA 106. Trees are well anchored, resistant to collar rot and woolly aphids. A good selection for heavy, poorly-drained soils.

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